On 28 July 2020 the World Bank launched the publication of the  Handbook of Deep Trade Agreements edited by Aaditya Mattoo, Nadia Rocha and Michele Ruta.

The handbook includes the analysis coming out from the mapping of more than 280 Preferential Trade Agreements (‘PTAs’) currently in force and represents the first analytical exercise attempting to analyse and understand in depth the degree of economic integration pursued by PTAs.

Dr Luca Rubini contributed to this major research project by mapping and analysing two key chapters in PTAs, those regulating state subsidies and state enterprises. He was helped in the mapping of the state enterprises provisions by Tiffany Kwok Wang, a former PhD student of BLS.

This research comes at a critical time for international trade law and has a two-fold objective. First, to better understand the content and dynamics of deep integration. Secondly, to assist developing countries in understanding the status quo of PTAs and better approaching their trade negotiations in the future.

The goldmine of data will now constitute the basis for further research on the law of policy of subsidies and state enterprises.