Jonathan Pettifer

Norm Contestation and the European Union

Supervisors: Dr Rita Floyd and Professor Mark Webber

Jonathan’s research focuses on developing theories around the contestation of norms beyond discourse and language alone. This is developed through examining Poland and Hungary as resistors of LGBTQ+ acceptance to prove how contestation occurs in practice and behaviour to develop a new theory of contestation based on action, with discourse as an explanation for contestation, not a focus. This theory will also allow for examination and analysis of contestation by actors at all levels, not just at the macro level of the elite.


Jonathan Pettifer completed both his BA and MA degrees here at Birmingham, before deciding to stay to undertake a PhD. His work concentrates on norm contestation theories with specific reference to the lack of acceptance of LGBTQ+ people in Eastern Europe. Born in Walsall, near Birmingham, Jonathan has grown up in and around the city.


  • BA (Hons) Social Policy – University of Birmingham
  • MA International Security and Terrorism – University of Birmingham

Research interests

  • Norm contestation theories
  • Norm immunisation
  • Securitisation
  • LGBTQ+ rights
  • EU Politics
  • Constructivism in International Politics and Relations


Contact details:

Twitter: @jonpettifer1