Professor Fiona Carmichael

Professor Fiona Carmichael

Department of Management
Professor of Labour Economics

Fiona joined Birmingham Business School in 2007. She has a PhD in Economics from the University of East Anglia (1989) and an MPhil in economics from Cambridge University (1985). Her first degree  in Economics, Politics and Quantitative Methods is from The University of East Anglia (1983). Her main theoretical and empirical contributions are concentrated at the intersection between labour economics, the sociology of work and HRM,  in health economics and in sports economics and policy. Current research is focused mainly around employment and policy issues linked to older age, the ageing society and the care economy.


1980-1983: BA(Hons) first class: University of East Anglia; Economics, Quantitative methods and Politics
1984-1985: MPhil: University of Cambridge; Economics
1985-1989: PhD: University of East Anglia; Multinationals in the Labour Market
1999-2001: Postgraduate Certificate in Further, Adult and Higher Education: Manchester Metropolitan University


Masters/Doctoral level:

  • Economics and Economic Policy for Business
  • Regression with Categorical Dependent Variables

Postgraduate supervision

Dr Carmichael is interested in supervising doctoral research in the following areas:

Gender, age and work
Informal care and paid employment
Economics of sport


Recent publications


Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Ercolani, M, Daley, P, Duberley, J, Schwanen, T & Wheatley, D 2024, 'Long hours of work and long commutes in the Greater Accra region of Ghana: Time Poverty and Gender', Feminist Economics.

Kanji, S, Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Egyei, R & Vasilakos, N 2023, 'The impact of early marriage on the life satisfaction, education and subjective health of young women in India: A longitudinal analysis', Journal of Development Studies.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Daley, P, Duberley, J, Ercolani, M, Schwanen, T & Wheatley, D 2023, 'Time poverty and gender in urban sub-Saharan Africa: Long working days and long commutes in Ghana’s Greater Accra Metropolitan Area', Journal of International Development.

Drishti, E & Carmichael, F 2022, 'Dead-end jobs or steppingstones? Precarious work in Albania', Personnel Review.

Drishti, E & Carmichael, F 2022, 'Life satisfaction and job insecurity: evidence from Albania', Communist and Post-Communist Studies.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Kanji, S & Vasilakos, N 2022, 'School closures and educational attainment in Ethiopia: can extra classes help children to catch up?', British Educational Research Journal, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 640-664.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Kanji, S & Vasilakos, N 2022, 'The contribution of girls' longer hours in unpaid work to gender gaps in early adult employment: evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam', Feminist Economics, vol. 2022, pp. 1-38.

Steinþórsdóttir, F, Carmichael, F & Taylor, S 2021, 'Gendered workload allocation in universities: a feminist analysis of practices and possibilities in a European University', Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1859-1875.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C & Kanji, S 2021, 'Wage effects of educational mismatch and job search in Ghana and Kenya', Education Economics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 359-378.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C & Vasilakos, N 2021, 'Well-being and employment of young people in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam Is work enough?', Development Policy Review.

Darko, C & Carmichael, F 2020, 'Education of biological and fostered children in Ghana: the influence of relationships with the household head and household structure', Journal of International Development, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 487-504.

Carmichael, F, Darko, C, Ercolani, M, Ozgen, C & Siebert, S 2020, 'Evidence on intergenerational income transmission using complete Dutch population data', Economics Letters, vol. 189, 108996.

Atkinson, C, Carmichael, F & Duberley, J 2020, 'The menopause taboo at work: examining women’s embodied experiences of menopause in the UK police service', Work, Employment & Society.

Carmichael, F & Clarke, H 2020, 'Why work? Disability, family care and employment', Disability & Society.

Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Drishti, E & Carmichael, F 2022, Cross-national Comparison of Job Types: Analysis Using the EU LFS and Albanian LFS. in W Bartlett & M Uvalic (eds), Towards Economic Inclusion in the Western Balkans. 1 edn, New Perspectives on South-East Europe, Palgrave Macmillan.

View all publications in research portal


Employment and training issues relating to ageing societies, the over 50s and informal carers

Alternative contact number available for this expert: contact the press office


Health and Social care

Fiona Carmichael is an expert on employment issues faced by informal caregivers and older workers:

  • Caregiving over life-courses – costs and trade-offs
  • Barriers to employment faced by older workers
  • Career histories and outcomes in later life

Policy experience

Alternative contact number available for this expert: contact the press office