Emeritus Professor Chris Skelcher

Emeritus Professor Chris Skelcher

Department of Public Administration and Policy
Emeritus Professor

Contact details

School of Government
Muirhead Tower
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT


  • PhD (Birmingham); MSc (Birmingham); BSc (Wales); Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences
  • Member of: Political Studies Association, American Society of Public Administration, International Research Society for Public Management, International Political Studies Association,
  • Current and previous editorial boards: Public Administration Review; Critical Policy Studies; Public Money and Management; Local Government Studies.
  • Member of the ESRC Grants Assessment Panel.


Professor Skelcher's research examines how ideas about democracy and governance interact with the institutions of contemporary governance.  It has involved extensive collaboration with European, US and Australian academics, including co-authored papers and conference panels, as well as knowledge transfer events for policy makers and practitioners in the UK and Australia and capacity building events for the PhD/early career research community.

His primary research focus is on the implications for democracy of the fragmentation of government into multiple agencies/partnerships operating at arm’s-length to elected political authority.  Initial research into quangos in mid 1990s (funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation) investigated the membership and attitudes of board members, using a large scale postal survey and semi-structured interviews.  A subsequent study of community regeneration partnerships (also JRF) undertaken with Prof. Vivien Lowndes, generated a Public Administration article (1998) which is one of the most cited articles in PA over the past two decades and continues to be widely cited.  In 1998 I published a substantial research monograph - The Appointed State: Quasi-governmental organisations and democracy (Open UP).  This resulted in invitations to give evidence to the Public Administration Select Committee and the Committee on Standards in Public Life.  In 2000, Stuart Weir (Democratic Audit) and Professor Skelcher were commissioned by the Local Government Information Unit to undertake an analysis of quangos under New Labour (with Lynne Wilson).  

In the 2000s, his research migrated from the democratic analysis of ‘quangos’ into public private partnerships and single purpose boards (e.g. regeneration partnerships, business improvement districts, and the variety of local level special purpose agencies).  He was PI on 2 ESRC research awards and an ESRC / EPSRC Public Service Fellowship at the Advanced Institute for Management Research, and held a number of ESRC PhD studentships and an ESRC Follow-on Grant.  Further research was funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and a Danish Research Council international collaborative PhD scholarship. 

These studies have involved methodological development, including a recent web-enabled and cross-national Q methodology study of Dutch and English public managers’ understandings of democracy (published in Public Administration, December 2011).  His recent book with Stephen Jeffares (Birmingham) and Helen Sullivan (Melbourne) - Hybrid Governance in European Cities (Palgrave, 2013) - reports the results of our analysis of changing forms of urban governance.

During 2010-2012 he collaborated on a successful ESRC seminar series award on Beyond the State: Third party Government in Comparative Perspective (with Dr. Catherine Durose, de Montfort University, and Dr. Jonathan Justice, University of Delaware).  In 2011 he was awarded a Nuffield Foundation small grant to undertake a pilot project on Political Commitment to Quango Reform (with Dr. Chris Moores, School of History, University of Birmingham), comparing the politics of quango reform under the 1979 Thatcher and 2010 Coalition governments.  This developed into a cross-national comparative context supported by an ESRC award (with co-Is Professors Matthew Flinders [Sheffield] and Anthony Bertelli [New York University] called Shrinking the State: Reform of Arm's-length Bodies in Comparative Perspective, which ran from 2012-2016. This project involved close interaction with Cabinet Office and government departments, the Public Chairs Forum, the chairs and chief executives of public bodies, and a range of other stakeholders - including evidence to committees of the House of Commons and House of Lords.

Outputs from this research have been recognised through the UK Public Administration Consortium Prize for best paper in Public Administration 2005 (co-authored with Mathur/Smith) and a ‘commendation’ in 2008 (co-authored with Munro/Roberts, 2 PhD researchers), and the Jan Kooiman Prize for best paper in Public Management Review 2008 (co-authored with Helen Sullivan).  My 2002 research monograph on collaborative governance with Prof. Helen Sullivan (Working Across Boundaries, Palgrave), the 2007 article with Professor Erik-Hans Klijn on the theoretical relationship between network governance and representative democracy, and a 1998 paper on the dynamics of multi-organisational partnerships are all widely cited.  

He is now supervising a PhD study of the network governance of the transition to low carbon in European cities, funded by the EU’s Climate Knowledge and Innovation Centre, and developing ideas on the relationship between institutional flexibility and democracy with colleagues at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

In parallel to this academic research, Professor Skelcher has been commissioned by government to undertake a large number of studies, evaluations, and policy advice projects.  Sponsors include Communities and Local Government (formerly, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister), Local Government Association, National Assembly for Wales, Neighbourhood Renewal Unit, and a number of local authorities.  In 2000 I led a team of political scientists, constitutionalists, and lawyers to draft an English equivalent to the US Model Cities Charter, a model set of constitutional documents for local authorities following the replacement of the committee system with cabinets and elected mayors.  The outputs form the basis of the political management procedures adopted by almost all England’s 400+ local authorities.

Later, he directed a 3 year evaluation of turnaround by poorly performing local authorities, generating policy advice for HM Treasury, ODPM/CLG, Audit Commission, and other departments/local government bodies.  This research led into a 2007 ESRC Public Service Programme research award (as co-I with PI Prof Kieran Walshe, Manchester Business School), again associated with close interaction and knowledge transfer with policy makers and practitioners.


Professor Skelcher co-teaches a postgraduate module on 'Partnership and Collaboration' on our on-line MPA programme.  I have previously taught postgraduate modules on ‘Public management and governance’, ‘Democracy and participation’ and 'Quality in public services', as well as undergraduate modules on 'Public policy making', 'Central and local government', and 'Policy analysis'.

His educational activities have also involved workshops and training events for a variety of local authorities on various issues of governance and management.

Postgraduate supervision

Professor Skelcher is not able to accept any additional PhD students.  If you are interested in studying with us, please send your proposal and cv to Dr Stephen Jeffares, our PhD Programme Director.

Examples of the topics on which his doctoral students are or have been working include:

  • Network governance and the transition to low carbon in European cities;
  • Collaborative capacity in Thai local government;
  • Interpretive analysis of evidence based policy making in the HS2 project;
  • Shared management in small local authorities in England and Thailand;
  • Migration, integration policy and claims-making in Copenhagen and Birmingham;
  • Accountability of indirectly elected representatives in regional government;
  • The politics and chronology of rule change in governance networks;
  • Boundary spanning behaviour and partnership effectiveness in PPPs;
  • Gov 2.0 in local government. 


Professor Skelcher's research concentrates on the way in which ideas about democracy and governance interact with the institutions and behaviours through which public policy is performed.  The main focus is on governmental activity at arm’s-length to elected political authority – including citizen-centred governance, networks and partnerships, quangos, and public-private partnerships.

He is particularly interested in extending the methodological repertoire that can be employed in interpretive studies of these issues, including the use of Q methodology, quality of democracy analysis, technology-assisted research, and comparative cross-national analysis.

His research addresses a number of questions:

  • What ideas drive contemporary models of governance?
  • How can we explain the emergence of and transitions in the institutional designs and practices of arm's length governance?
  • How can the democratic performance of these institutions be conceptualised and assessed?
  • What is the role of intermediaries between state and civil society, and especially public managers and community leaders as situated agents?
  • How do ideas about governance relate to the construction of performance?

He has also been investigating questions of governance and performance thru the lens of management studies, focusing on institutional explanations of ‘poor performance’ by local governments and other public organisations.

Current and recent projects include

  • The role of network governance in low carbon transitions in European cities (EU Climate Knowledge and Innovation Centre), 2014-2017
  • Do flexible institutions enhance democracy? A pilot study for a comparative analysis of public governance innovations in Brazil and the UK (FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation)/University of Birmingham), 2014-16
  • Shrinking the State? Analysing the reform of arm's length bodies (ESRC research award with Flinders, Sheffield University, and Bertelli, New York University), 2012-2016
  • Political commitment to quango reform (Nuffield Foundation, with Chris Moores, Birmingham), 2011-2012
  • Beyond the state? Third party government in comparative perspective (ESRC seminar series, collaboration with Justice, University of Delaware, and Durose, de Montfort University), 2010-2012
  • Integration policy and network governance in Copenhagen and Birmingham (Danish Research Council collaborative studentship with Sorensen, Roskilde University), 2008-2011
  • Multi-level governance and accountability in English Regions (ESRC CASE award) 2007-2011
  • Responding to evidence of poor performance: explaining public organisations’ capacity to deal with failure (ESRC Public Services Programme, with Walshe, and colleagues, Manchester Business School, completed 2009)
  • Democratic anchorage of governance networks in European countries (ESRC, collaboration with Erasmus and Roskilde universities, completed 2008)
  • Accountability impacts of local government modernisation agenda (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, with Cardiff Business School, completed 2008)
  • Governance structures and citizen involvement (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, with Barnes, University of Brighton, completed 2007)
  • Risk and the design of public space (Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, completed 2007)


Recent Publications Include:

2015       K. Tonkiss and C. Skelcher ‘Abolishing the Audit Commission: Framing, discourse coalitions and administrative reform’ Local Government Studies, 41 (6), pp 861-880, ISSN 0300 3930

2015       C. Skelcher ‘Reforming the oversight of administrative justice 2010-2014: does the UK need a new Leggatt Report?, Public Law, April (2), pp 215-224, ISSN 0033-3565

2015       C. Durose, J. Justice and C. Skelcher ‘Governing at arm’s length: eroding or enhancing democracy?’Policy and Politics, 43 (1), pp 137-153, ISSN 0305-5736

2015       C. Skelcher and S. R. Smith 'Theorising hybridity: Institutional logics, complex organizations, and actor identities – the case of nonprofits', Public Administration 93 (2), pp 433–448, ISSN 0033-3298

2014       K. Dommett and C. Skelcher 'Opening the black-box of administrative reform:  A strategic-relational analysis of agency responses to termination threats', International Public Management Journal 17 (4), pp 540-563, ISSN 1096-7494

2014       K. Dommett, M. Flinders, C. Skelcher and K. Tonkiss 'Did they ‘Read Before Burning’? The Coalition and quangos', Political Quarterly 85 (2), pp 133–142, Online ISSN: 1467-923X

2014       S. R. Smith and C. Skelcher 'Hybridity and nonprofit organizations: The research and management challenge', Nonprofit Quarterly 21 (1), pp 80-87, ISSN 1934-6050

2014       P. Jas and C. Skelcher ‘Different regulatory regimes in different parts of the UK? A comparison of narrative and practice in relation to poor performance in local government’, Local Government Studies 40 (1), pp 121-140, ISSN 0300-3930

2013       C. Skelcher, H. Sullivan and S. Jeffares Hybrid Governance in European Cities: Neighbourhood, Migration and Democracy, Basingstoke: Palgrave, ISBN 978-0-230-27322-1, 190 pps

2012       M. Flinders and C. Skelcher ‘Shrinking the quango state: five challenges in reforming quangos’ Public Money and Management 32 (5), pp327-334, ISSN 0954-0962

2011       S. Jeffares and C. Skelcher ‘Democratic subjectivities in network governance: a Q methodology study of Dutch and English public managers’ Public Administration 89 (4), pp 1253-1273, ISSN 0033 3298

2011       C. Skelcher, E-H Klijn, D. Kübler, E. Sørensen and H. Sullivan “Explaining the democratic anchorage of governance networks: Evidence from four European countries” Administrative Theory and Praxis 33 (1), pp 7-38, ISSN 1084-1806

2010       C. Skelcher and J. Torfing “Improving democratic governance through institutional design: civic participation and democratic ownership in Europe” Regulation and Governance 4 (1), pp 71-91, ISSN 1748-5983

2009       J. Justice and C. Skelcher “Analyzing democracy in third party government: business improvement districts in the US and UK” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33 (3), pp 738-753, ISSN 0309-1317

2008       C. Skelcher and H. Sullivan “Theory-driven approaches to analysing collaborative performance” Public Management Review 10 (6), pp 751-771, ISSN 1471-9037 (Kooiman Prize 2008 for Best Paper in Public Management Review)