Speech Differences

Includes: Stammering/Stuttering, Cluttering, and Apraxia
My Stammering Tap
We are NOT nervous
Tips for Teachers with Abed Ahmed
Cluttering Speech (Animation): A 1-minute explanation
Symptoms of Cluttering Speech Explained
What is apraxia of speech?

Academic Articles: Speech Differences and Higher Education

  • Sambell, Kay and Brown, Sally (2021) Changing assessment for good: building on the emergency switch to promote future-oriented assessment and feedback designs. In: Baughan, Patrick, (ed.) Assessment and feedback in a post-pandemic era: a time for learning and inclusion. Advance HE, York, UK, pp. 11-21.
  • Calvert, L., (2020). “I’m not nervous. It’s just how I talk”: Stammering in University and the creation of an inclusive learning environment. Blended Learning in Practice
  • Butler, C., (2013). ‘University?… hell no!’: Stammering through education. International Journal of Educational Research, 59, pp.57-65.


Blogs are a great way to understand the real life experiences of having speech differences. Click on the blog titles below to open them in a new page.

Redefining Stammering

STAMMA: Your Voice

Exeter University Stammering Support Group

Too Fast for Words

My Life with littles: Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Fighting for my Voice


Like blogs, Podcasts offer the first person experience, but through an audio file which can be listened to on smartphones or digital music and multimedia players.

STAMMA: Around the Block

STAMMA: Power Stammering

Stuttering Help

Stutter Talk


  • Stuttering Help free e-book
  • Anderson, C. (2022). Every Waking Moment. Just Confront Press LLC
  • Lovett, L. (2019) Stuttering and Anxiety Self-Cures. Peace Love and Reason LLC
  • Goldenberg, G. (2017). Apraxia: The cognitive side of motor control. Academic 
  • van Zaalen, Y., and Reichel, I. (2015). Cluttering. Current Views on its nature, diagnosis and treatment. iUniverse.
  • Velleman, S. (2015) Speech Sound Disorders. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers
  • Preston, K. (2013) Out with it: How stuttering helped me find my voice. Atria Books
  • Kelman, E and Whyte, A. (2012). Understanding Stammering or Stuttering. Jessica Kingsley Publishers