Professor Jeannette Littlemore BA, MA, PhD, PGCHE, FAcSS

Photograph of Professor Jeannette Littlemore

Department of English Language and Linguistics
Professor of English Language and Applied Linguistics

Contact details

Frankland Building
University of Birmingham
B15 2TT

Jeannette Littlemore is a Professor of Applied Linguistics in the Department of English Language and Linguistics at the University of Birmingham. Her research focuses on the role played by metaphor and metonymy in the understanding and expression of emotional experiences. She also explores the role played by metaphor and metonymy in language learning and cross-cultural communication. 

Her books include: Creative Metaphor, Emotion and Evaluation in Conversations about Work (Routledge, 2023, with Turner and Tuck); The Many Faces of Creativity: Exploring Synaesthesia through a Metaphorical Lens (CUP, 2023, with Turner); Metaphor, Metonymy, the Body and the Environment: An Exploration of the Factors that Shape Emotion-colour Associations and their Variation across Cultures (CUP, 2023, with Bolognesi, Leung, Julich, and Pérez Sobrino); Metaphors in the Mind: Sources of Variation in Embodied Metaphor(CUP, 2019), Metonymy: Hidden Shortcuts in Language, Thought and Communication (CUP, 2015); Figurative Language, Genre and Register (CUP, 2015, with Deignan and Semino), Doing Applied Linguistics (with Groom, Routledge 2011); Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Second Language Learning and Teaching (Palgrave MacMillan, 2009) and Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning (with Low, Palgrave MacMillan, 2006).

She is Chair of the International Organisation, Researching and Applying Metaphor.


  • Post Graduate Certificate in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. University of Birmingham, 2001.
  • PhD English Language Teaching, Thames Valley University, 1998. Title: Individual differences in second language learning: towards an identification of the strategy preferences and language learning strengths of L2 students with holistic and/or imager cognitive styles. Supervisor: Professor Peter Skehan.
  • MA Applied Linguistics and English Language Teaching, University of East Anglia, 1993.
  • BA (Hons) European Studies (majoring in French and Economics with a mathematics subsidiary), University of Bradford, 1989.


I have been working at the University of Birmingham since 1999. Before that, I taught and lectured in Spain, Japan and Belgium.


I teach on both the campus-based and the distance MA programmes in TEFL and Applied Linguistics as well as the BA Single Honours and Joint Honours programmes in English Language. I teach on and/or convene modules in Language Teaching Methodology, Second Language Acquisition, Lexis, Research Methods in Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Linguistics, Pedagogic Grammar, Psycholinguistics and Teacher Training. 

Postgraduate supervision

I have a lively group of PhD students working on metaphor, metonymy and second language learning. I am interested in supervising MA and PhD research in the areas of:

Teaching and learning figurative language
Language learning and cognitive linguistics
Analyzing figurative language

Find out more - our PhD English Language and Applied Linguistics  page has information about doctoral research at the University of Birmingham.


My research interests lie in the area of figurative language and thought. I am currently working on the relationship between emotion, empathy, metaphor and creativity.

Research groups

External research grants and awards received

  • Dates: Sep 2016 - Sep 2018
    Title of Project: 
    Death before Birth: Understanding, informing and supporting the choices made by people who have experienced miscarriage, termination, and stillbirth (Project Reference: ES/N008359/1)
    Funding Body: 
    My role: 
  • Dates: Oct 2015 - Oct 2017
    Title of Project: Exploring Multimodal Metaphor in Advertising (Project Reference: 659078)
    Funding Body: European Union (Marie Curie Fellowship Scheme)
    Amount: €183,455
    My role: Principal-Investigator (Research Fellow: Dr Paula Sobrino-Perez)
  • Dates: Jan 2012-Dec 2014
    Title of Project: Metaphor use in one-to-one academic consultations in English: Implications for Spanish student mobility in Europe (FFI2011-22809)
    Funding Body: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness
    Amount: €50,820
    My role: Co-Investigator
  • Dates: May 2014 - Apr 2016
    Title of Project: Metaphor: From Embodied Cognition to Discourse
    Funding Body: Thyssen Foundation (Germany)
    Amount: €10,000
    My role: Co-Investigator
  • Dates: Oct 2014-Sep 2017
    Title of Project: Cognitive modeling and meaning construction across languages: Theory, implications, and applications (FFI2013-43593-P)
    Funding Body: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness
    Amount: €73,000
    My role: Co-Investigator
  • Dates: Aug 2010-Jul 2011
    Title of Project: Verbal and gestural metaphor in cross-cultural communication
    Funding Body: The British Council
    Amount: £2,820
    My role: Principal Investigator
  • Dates: Apr 2010-Mar 2011
    Title of Project: Investigating figurative proficiency at different levels of second language writing
    Funding Body: Cambridge ESOL
    Amount: £5,000
    My role: Principal Investigator
  • Dates: Jan-Dec 2006
    Title of Project: The Development of Creativity in Japanese Learners of English
    Funding Body: Japanese DAIWA Foundation
    Amount: £1,200
    My role: Principal Investigator
  • Dates: Aug 2000 - Feb 2003
    Title of Project: New Technologies and Language Learning: Pedagogical Approaches and Practical Applications (Project Number: 56563-CP-1-98-1-IE-LINGUA-LA)
    Funding Body: The European Union
    Amount: €146,000
    My role: Co-Investigator
  • Dates: Jan 1997 - Jul 1999
    Title of Project: European Language Council Thematic Network Project in the area of Languages: (Project 25917-CP-2-97-1-DE-ERASMUS-ETN)
    Funding Body: The European Union
    Amount: €6,030,000
    My role: Co-Investigator

Other activities

I am involved in a number of national and international research projects, investigating the use of verbal and gestural metaphor in cross-cultural communication and the development of figurative proficiency at different levels of second language writing.


Highlight publications

Littlemore, J 2019, Metaphors in the mind: Sources of variation in embodied metaphor. Cambridge University Press.

Littlemore, J 2015, Metonymy: Hidden Shortcuts in language, thought and communication. Cambridge University Press. <>

Littlemore, J, Deignan, A & Semino, E 2013, Figurative Language, Genre and Register. Cambridge University Press.

Littlemore, J 2009, Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Second Language Learning and Teaching. Palgrave Macmillan.

Littlemore, J & Low, G 2006, Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning. Palgrave Macmillan.

Recent publications


Littlemore, J, Turner, S & Tuck, P 2023, Creative Metaphor, Evaluation and Emotion in Conversations about Work. Routledge Focus on Applied Linguistics, 1st edn, Routledge.

Littlemore, J, Bolognesi, M, Julich-Warpakowski, N, Leung, D & Pérez Sobrino, P 2023, Metaphor, metonymy, the body and the environment: An exploration of the factors that shape emotion-colour associations and their variation across cultures. Elements in cognitive linguistics, Cambridge University Press.

Littlemore, J & Turner, S 2023, The Many Faces of Creativity: Exploring Synaesthesia through a Metaphorical Lens. Elements in Cognitive Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Wilding, E, Bartl, S, Littlemore, J, Clark, MT & Brooke, J 2023, 'A metaphor analysis of older adults’ lived experience of household isolation during COVID-19', Frontiers in Communication, vol. 7, 1015562.

Woodin, G, Winter, B, Littlemore, J, Perlman, M & Grieve, J 2023, 'Large-scale patterns of number use in spoken and written English', Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory.

Turner, S & Littlemore, J 2023, 'Literal or metaphorical? Conventional or creative? Contested metaphoricity in intense emotional experiences', Metaphor and the Social World, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 37-58.

Littlemore, J & Fielden-Burns, L 2023, 'On the fringes of metaphor: Using ambiguously figurative vague language to pragmatically negotiate sensitive topics in the English as a Medium of Instruction classroom', Journal of Pragmatics, vol. 209, pp. 1-14.

Clark, MT, Littlemore, J, Taylor, J & Debelle, G 2022, 'Child abuse linked to faith or belief: working towards recognition in practice', Nursing Children and Young People.

Werkman-Horvat, A, Bolognesi, M, Littlemore, J & Barnden, J 2022, 'Comprehension of different types of novel metaphors in monolinguals and multilinguals', Language and Cognition, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1-36.

Chow, MY & Littlemore, J 2022, 'Metaphorical conceptualizations of cancer treatment in English and Chinese languages', International journal of language and culture.

Turner, S, Littlemore, J, Taylor, J, Parr, E & Topping, A 2022, 'Metaphors that shape parents’ perceptions of effective communication with healthcare practitioners following child death: a qualitative UK study', BMJ open, vol. 12, no. 1, e054991.

Littlemore, J 2022, 'On the creative use of metonymy', Review of Cognitive Linguistics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 104–129.

Turner, S, Littlemore, J, Parr, E, Taylor, J & Topping, A 2022, '‘Lights in the darkness’, Part 1: characterising effective communication with healthcare practitioners following the death of a child', Mortality.

Chapter (peer-reviewed)

Ford, S & Littlemore, J 2023, Exploring the impact of figurative communication and advertising: reflections on a collaboration between linguistics researchers and a Midlands-based marketing agency. in H Price & D McIntyre (eds), Communicating Linguistics: Language, Community and Public Engagement. 1 edn, Routledge.

Houghton, D, Littlemore, J, Ford, S, Harfield, C & Marder, B 2022, What drives emotion and physiological arousal in adverts? The critical role of figurative operations. in A Bagasheva, B Hristov & N Tincheva (eds), Figurativity and Human Ecology. John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 181–205.

View all publications in research portal


Metaphor and the problems that it presents for cross-linguistic communication and language learning

Alternative contact number available for this expert: contact the press office


Death Before Birth - how people reach decisions regarding what happens to their baby after death, how their perceptions of the law inform their decisions, as well as how these experiences are expressed to people around them