Upscaling Production of a Feed-Based Vaccine against Vibriosis for Marine Fishes: A Comprehensive Evaluations of Economic Implications for Low Middle Income Countries (LMICs)


Vaccination provides a sustainable alternative to the unsustainable use of antibiotics in aquaculture for the treatment of bacterial diseases, thereby reducing the incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Our project focuses on the development of a feed-based vaccine against infection by Vibrio spp. (MyIPO Malaysia, patent filing number: PI2021000105). This vaccine is unique in term of its cost-effectiveness, ease of administration, and environmental safety. Moreover, it reduces the reliance on trained personnel for vaccine administration and minimizes fish stress during vaccination.  The oral vaccine stimulates both mucosal and systemic immune responses that prevent infections by multiple Vibrio species, resulting in an average survival of 80% to reach market weight. For optimal protection, it is recommended that this vaccine be administered orally according to the prescribed schedule.

The promising efficacy calls for commercialization efforts, including upscaling and field validation of the upscaled product on efficacy and suitability in cage cultured marine farms in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In collaboration with Bio-Angle Vacs Sdn. Bhd. (co-applicant industry), we plan to optimize the manufacturing process in a certified GMP facility. The upscaled vaccine will undergo field studies in farms in Malaysia and Indonesia (co-applicant LMIC, Indonesia) to validate its efficacy, elucidate vaccination mechanisms (co- applicant UK partner), and conduct a cost-benefit analysis of vaccination. These goals contribute to the development of an effective oral vaccine for marine fish, addressing the challenges that small- to medium-scale farmers in LMICs are facing when utilising injectable vaccines and eventually, reduce AMR for sustainable aquaculture production.




Ina Salwany MD YasinDr Ina Salwany Md Yasin
Deputy Director
Institute of Bioscience
Universiti Putra Malaysia


Professor. Dr. Mohd Zamri-Saad, Technical Advisor, Bio-Angle Vacs Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia

Professor. Dr. Alim Isnansetyo, Lecturer, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Dr. Tharangani Herath, Senior Lecturer, Harper Adams University, UK