Refereed Journal Publications (*corresponding author)

  • B. Wang, Z. Wang, X. Bao, Y. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Xu*, X Zhang. “Microscopic investigation of near-field spray characteristics of 2-methylfuran, ethanol and isooctane under flash boiling conditions”.(2018) Fuel, vol. 215, 2018, page 142-152.
  • B. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Jiang, H. Xu*, X. Zhang. “Dynamic spray development of 2-methylfuran compared to ethanol and isooctane under ultra-high injection pressure” (2018), Fuel (234); pages 581-591.
  • K.D. Dearn*, H. Moorcroft, E. Sukjit, P. Poapongsakorn, E.Z. Hu, Y.F. Xu, and X.G. Hu. “The tribology of fructose derived biofuels for DISI gasoline engines”. (2018) Fuel, vol. 224, pages 226-234.
  • M. Ouadi*, C. Greenhalf, N. Jaeger, L.G. Speranza, and A. Hornung. “Thermo-catalytic reforming of co-form® rejects (waste cleansing wipes)”. (2018) Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 132, pages 33-39.
  • Y. Jiang, H. Xu*, X. Ma X, X. Bao, B. Wang. “Laminar burning characteristics of 2-MTHF compared with ethanol and isooctane”. (2017) Fuel, vol. 190, pages 10-20.
  • X. Bao, Y. Jiang, H. Xu*, C. Wang, T. Lattimore, L. Tang. “Laminar flame characteristics of cyclopentanone at elevated temperatures”. (2017) Applied Energy, vol. 195, pages 671-680.
  • M. Ouadi*, N. Jaeger, C. Greenhalf, J. Santos, R. Conti, and A. Hornung. "Thermo-Catalytic Reforming of municipal solid waste”. (2017) Waste Management, vol. 68, pages  198-206.
  • H.M. Xu* and C. Wang, “A Comprehensive Review of 2,5-Dimethylfuran as Biofuel Candidate” Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass - Innovations beyond Bioethanol. Wiley, (2016). doi: 10.1002/9783527685318.ch5
  • C. Wang, L. Wei, Z. Cheng, H. Xu*, R. Daniel, S. Shuai. “Hydrocarbon and Aldehyde Emissions from Combustion of 2-Methylfuran” (2015). Combustion Science and Technology (188) Pages 329-345.
  • X. Ma, C Jiang, H.M. Xu*, S. Shuai, “Ultra-High Speed Imaging and OH-LIF Study of DMF and MF Combustion in a DISI Optical Engine Combustion and Flame,” Applied Energy, Volume 122, 1 June 2014, Pages 247–260.
  • X. Ma, C Jiang; H,M. Xu*, H. Ding; S. Shuai, "Laminar burning characteristics of 2-methylfuran and isooctane blend fuels", Fuel, Volume 116, 15 January 2014, Pages 281–291.
  • X. Ma, C. Jiang, H.M. Xu*, S. Shuai, and H. Ding, “Laminar Burning Characteristics of 2-Methylfuran Compared with 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Isooctane Energy Fuels”, Energy & Fuels, 2013, 27 (10), pp 6212–6221.
  • R. Daniel, H.M. Xu*, C. Wang, G. Tian and D. Richardson, “Gaseous and particulate matter emissions of biofuel blends in dual-injection compared to direct-injection and port injection”, Applied Energy, Volume 105, May 2013, Pages 252–261.
  • Chongming Wang, Hongming Xu*, Ritchie Daniel; Akbar Ghafourian, Jose Herreros, Shijin Shuai, Xiao Ma, “Combustion Characteristics and Emissions of 2-Methylfuran Compared to 2,5-Dimethylfuran, Gasoline and Ethanol in a DISI Engine, “ Fuel, Volume 103, January 2013, Pages 200–211.
  • R. Daniel, L. Wei, C. Wang, H.M. Xu* and M. L. Wyszynski, “Speciation of Hydrocarbon and Carbonyl Emissions of 2,5-Dimethylfuran in a DISI Engine,” Energy & Fuels, in press, 2012.
  • L. Wei, Lixia; Z. Li, L. Tong, Z. Wang, H. Jin, M. Yao, Z. Zheng, C. Wang, H.M. Xu*, "Primary Combustion Intermediates in Lean and Rich Low-pressure premixed Laminar 2-Methylfuran/Oxygen/Argon Flames," Energy & Fuels, in press.
  • R. Daniel, C. Wang, H.M. Xu*, G. Tian, D. Richardson. “Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy using pure Ethanol and Methanol”, SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 2012.
  • R. Daniel, C. Wang, H.M. Xu*, G. Tian. “Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran”, SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 2012.
  • R. Daniel, H.M. Xu*, C. Wang, G. Tian and D. Richardson, ”Combustion Performance of 2,5-Dimethylfuran Blends using Dual-Injection compared to Direct-Injection in a SI Engine,”  Applied Energy, Volume 98,  Pages 59–68, 2012.
  • E. Hu, X. Hu*, X. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Dearn, H.M. Xu, “On the Fundamental Lubricity of 2, 5-Dimethylfuran as a Synthetic Engine Fuel”, Journal of Tribology International, Volume 55, November 2012, Pages 119–125.
  • X.  Wu, Q. Lia, J.  ua, C. Tang, Z. Huang*, R. Daniel, R. Tian, H.M. Xu, “Laminar Burning Characteristics of 2,5-Dimethylfuran and Iso-octane Blend at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures”. Fuel, 2012. 95: p. 234-240.
  • R. Daniel, G. Tian, H.M. Xu*, S. Shuai, ”Ignition Timing Sensitivities of Oxygenated Biofuels Compared to Gasoline in a Direct-Injection SI Engine,” Fuel, vol. 99 September, 2012. p. 72-82.
  • X. Wu, R. Daniel, G. Tian, H.M. Xu*, Z. Huang, D. Richardson, “Dual-Injection: the Flexible, Bi-fuel Concept for Spark-Ignition Engines fuelled with various Gasoline and Biofuel blends, “ Applied Energy 88 (2011) 2305–2314, 2011.
  • D. Turner, H.M. Xu*, R. Cracknell, V. Natarajan and X. Chen, “Combustion Performance of Bio-Ethanol at Various Blend Ratios in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine, “ Fuel, 90 (2011) 1999–2006 , 2011.
  • R. Daniel, G. Tian ,H.M. Xu*, M. L. Wyszynski, X. Wu, Z. Huang, “Effect of Spark Timing and Load  n a DISI Engine fuelled with 2,5-Dimethylfuran,” Fuel, Volume 90, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 449-458.
  • G Tian, R Daniel, H Li, H.M.Xu*, S. Shuai, P. Richards, “Laminar Burning Velocities of 2,5-Dimethylfuran  Compared with Ethanol and Gasoline,” Energy & Fuels, 2010, 24 (7), pp 3898–3905
  • S. Zhong, R. Daniel, H.M. Xu*, J. Zhang, M. Wyszynski, D. Turner, P. Richards, “Combustion and Emissions of 2,5-Dimethylfuran in a Direct Injection Spark-ignition Engine,” Energy & Fuels, 24 (5), pp 2891–2899, 2010.
  • G. Tian*, H. Li, H.M. Xu, “Spray Characteristics study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer,” SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars- Mechanical Systems, August ,2010 vol. 3 no. 1 948-958.
  • G. Tian*, H.M.Xu, R. Daniel, H. Li, Y. Li, “Spray Characteristics and Engine Adaptability of 2,5-Dimethylfuran,” Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy, 02, 2010.

SAE Papers

  • Li, H., li, C., Ma, X., TU, P. et al., "Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1592, 2013 2. Wang, C., Xu, H., and Lattimore, T., "Impacts of Low-Level 
  • Methylfuran Content in Gasoline on DISI Engine Combustion Behavior and Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1317, 2013
  • Xiao Ma, Changzhao Jiang, Hongming Xu, Steve Richardson. “In-cylinder Optical Study on Spray and Combustion of DMF and DMF-Gasoline Blend Fuel”, SAE Paper 2012-01-1235.
  • C. Jiang, X. Ma, H.M. Xu*, S. Richardson. “An Optical Study of DMF and Ethanol Combustion under Dual-Injection Strategy”, SAE Paper 2012-01-1237.
  • R. Daniel, C. Wang, H.M. Xu*, G. Tian. “Split-Injection Strategies at Wide Open Throttle using Gasoline, Ethanol and 2,5-Dimethylfuran in a Direct-Injection SI Engine”, SAE Paper 2012-01-0403.
  • C. Wang, R. Daniel, X. Ma, H.M. Xu*. “Comparison of Gasoline, Bio-ethanol and 2,5-Dimethylfuran in a DISI Engine using the Miller cycle with Late Inlet Valve Closure Timing”, SAE Paper 2012-01-1147.
  • C. Wang; R. Daniel, H.M. Xu*, “Research of the Atkinson Cycle in the Spark Ignition engine”, SAE Paper 2012-01-0390.
  • S. Zhong, D. Turner, J. Zhang, H.M. Xu*, M. L Wyszynski, “An Innovative Biofuel Approach – 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF):  Combustion Performance and Emissions in a GDI Engine,” SAE paper 2009-01-2824. presented at Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2-4 Nov, 2009
  • G. Tian, H. Li, H.M. Xu*, “Spray Characteristics study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, “  SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1505.

Conference Publications

  • H.M. Xu, “Further Research into X-Methylfuran Biofuels,” for the International Energy Agency 35th Task Leaders Meeting of the Conservation and Emissions Reduction in Combustion Implementing Agreement, Westin St. Francis San Francisco, California. U.S.A.,July 21- 25, 2013
  • H.M. Xu, “New bio-fuels from biomass in furan series,” Intentional Energy Agency Ex-Co meeting and biofuels session, 23 April 2013, Paris.
  • H.M. Xu, “Research into 3 Generations of Biofuels,”  UK-China Clean Powertrains Systems Workshop, 28-30 March 2012, Beijing.
  • H.M. Xu, “Some Characteristics of PM Emissions of Biofuels’, Cambridge PM Meetings, 18 May 2012.
  • H.M. Xu, “How far Can We go with HC Fuels for IC Engines,” European Fuels Conference, Paris, 13-16 March 2012.
  •  H.M. Xu: “Facing the challenge: the UK Red Brick Universities”, Tsinghua University, 24 April 2011. 
  • H.M. Xu , “DMF – Alternative to Ethanol?” UK-China Energy Conference, Beijing, 7-9 March 2011.
  • H.M. Xu, “IC engines – How Much Can They Improve?” Combustion Seminar, IMechE, Birmingham AD, 25 January 2011.
  • H.M. Xu, “Future of Internal Combustion Engines,“ UK-China Science Festival, Symposium on Clean Energy and Nanotechnology, 16-17 September 2010.
  • H.M.Xu, “Advanced Engine Research,” Invited lectures in State Key of IC Engines of China, Summer School, 17-19 July 2010
  •  H.M. Xu,  P. Luszcz, M.L. Wyszynski, “Research into Fuel Properties for HCCI Combustion,” Intentional Energy Agency HCCI Task Leader Meetings, Lake Louise, Canada, 20-24 September 2009.
  • H.M. Xu, “DMF – A new biofuel candidate,” Intentional Energy Agency HCCI Task Leader Meetings, Lake Louise, Canada, 20-24 September 2009.

Book Chapter

  • G. Tian, R. Daniel and H.M. Xu*, “DMF-A new biofuel candidate,” in Biofuel/Book 2, ISBN 978-953-307-478-8,2011.

PhD Thesis

  • Ritchie Daniel, “Combustion Characteristics of DMF in a direct injection Spark-ignition Engine,” School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, in preparation, 2011
  • Haiying Li, “Modelling Study of the Characteristics of Spray and Combustion of DMF and Ethanol,” School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, in preparation, 2011.

MSc Thesis

  • Aaron Whyley, “Toxicity of 2,5-Dimethylfuran”, School of Bioscience, University of Birmingham, 2011